MORNING GLORY SEEDS                

Ipomea.  Mexican scammony (root); Orizaba jalap root.  Dried
root of Ipomoea orizabensis Ledenois, Convolvulaceae. Active
constituent is the resin.  Yields not less than 15% total
ipomea resins.  Different from Ipomoea violacea variety.
Convolculaceae and Ipomoea rubrocoerulea variety praecox,
morning-glory, ololiuqui, which contain ergot alkaloids.
Occurrence of lysergic acid derivatives and of ergolines
in Ipomea was described by A. Hofmann in 1960.


                                 /    \\
                                |       |
             HOOC                \\   //
	         \-----   -----   -----
                 /    \\ /     \ /     \NH
                |       |       |       |
                 \     / \     /---------
                  --N--   -----

There are no references to the LD-50 of morning glory seeds. 

LSD is a synthetic, or manmade, drug.  But there are also natural
sources of lysergic acid.  These substances, called ergot alkaloids,
can be found in certain members of the Convolvulaceae, or
morning-glory family, notably Rivea corymbosa and Ipomoea violacea.

Both species are cultivated in several horticultural varieties,
all of which contain various forms of lysergic acid, which is
only 5 to 10% as potent as LSD.  In order to achieve the
hallucinatory effects comparable to those produced by 200 to 300
micrograms of LSD - an experience which may last 4 to 14 hours -
one must ingest 100 to 300 seeds.  Morning glory seeds can be
ground and brewed as a tea, but they are generally ingested by
being chewed or swallowed whole.

The morning-glory species Rivea corymbosa is what the Aztecs
called oloiuqui and used in their religious rituals.  This and
other species of morning glories have been used by Mexican 
Indians for centuries.  The hallucinations caused by the seeds
are used by these tribes to foretell future events and to diagnose
and treat various illnesses.

American drug users became interested in morning-glory seeds in
the 1960s, when scientific journals published articles relating
them to LSD.  However, use of the seeds as a recreational drug
has been discouraged by commercial seed producers, who treat the
seeds with a poisonous coating that cannot be removed by washing
and can cause unpleasant side effects such as nausea, vomiting,
and severe abdominal pain.  Extremely high doses of the seeds
can cause psychotic reactions, heart failure, and shock.  The
poisonous coating can by by-passed, of course, by simply planting
the seeds and then recovering new seeds from the plants.

Ololiuqui is a hallucinogenic drug obtained from the black and
brown seeds of the Morning Glory plant, which grows in Central
America and South America.  It contains five closely related
compounds that have properties similar to LSD. In addition to
chewing, the seeds can be ground into a powder, soaked in water, 
strained, and then the liquid consumed.  Physical effects are
intense and include nausea, vomiting, headaches, increased
blood pressure, dilated pupils, and sleepiness.  Distortion of
perception, hallucinations, psychotic reactions, and confusion
may appear.  Flashbacks have been known to occur, but they are

Despite its unpleasant effects, this drug is used because it
induces mild euphoria and hallucinogenic experiences - and also,
if it is the only thing available, a drug user may decide to
take it.